India is the world’s largest developing country with economic growth rate averaging 8% for the last 5 years. As per 2009 estimates, the brick production is increasing by 5-10% annually due to emergence of various developmental sectors, mainly housing, urbanization and infrastructure. India is estimated to have more than 1,45,000 registered/unregistered brick kilns producing more than 236 billion bricks. It is second largest producers of the brick in the world after China.
The brick technology in India varies from region to region and depends generally on scale of production, soil and fuel available, demand, market conditions and also on the enforcement of law for shifting from one technology to the other. The brick production in India takes place in units using century old production methods, involving manual and inefficient methods of clay preparation, hand moulding and firing. Since the drying and firing is done in open, the brick cannot be dried and fired during the rainy season, hence is mostly seasonal and operating from 6-8 months. 70% of brick production takes place in Indo-Gangetic plans consisting of north and north-eastern parts of India using Bull’s Trench Kiln (BTK) technology with fixed chimney. In peninsular India, the majority of brick production is through clamp kilns and BTKs. The main fuel used is coal and biomass.
The brick making is highly energy intensive process with specific energy consumption varying from 0.7 to 3 MJ/kg of fired mass.
Comparison between different kiln types:
Kiln Type Typical production capacity (Lakh bricks/ year) Approx no. of kilns Specific Energy Consumption (MJ/kg of fired product)
BTK- fixed chimney 30-100 >33,000 1.1-1.4
BTK-moving Chimney 20-80 >3000 1.2-1.75
High Draft down draft Kiln /Zig-Zag firing 30-50 2000 0.8-1.1
Clamps 0.5-10 >90,000 1.2-4.5
Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) 5-40 100-150 0.7-1.0
PSCST’s Contributions in Brick Sector
  • Development and demonstration of energy efficient kiln technology in 1998.
  • Developed code of practices for fixed chimney BTKs with respect to construction and better feeding, firing & operating practices.
  • Exhaustive emission monitoring of kilns developed by PSCST by various organizations such as Punjab Pollution Control Board, Central Pollution Control Board and TERI.
  • The technology approved by CPCB, SPCBs of Punjab, Haryana, J&K, HP, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu.
  • Sensitization of brick manufacturers on technology and construction aspects through district level workshops.
  • Mass scale adoption by brick manufacturers. Clientele of more than 3000 satisfied brick kilns owners.
  • Number of measures/techniques evolved for improvement of working conditions such as adoption of shunt; energy conservation technique such as insulated feed-hole covers (Tawa) and insulation of wickets etc.
  • Development of training modules including training aides (Video, manuals, posters, brochures and model).
  • Capacity building of owners and workers through on-site and off-site trainings programmes with partial financial support from Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).
  • Organized Conference on “Emerging Trends in Brick Industry” (ETB-2001) for providing platform for sharing of national experience with international experts with ultimate aim to carry out R&D in the brick sector especially on mechanization in brick moulding, drying and firing besides energy aspects.
  • Development of UNDP-GEF project on “Energy Efficiency Improvements in Indian Brick Industry” (2002)
  • Carried out feasibility studies on “Utilization of flyash in clay-flyash brick making” for the State of Haryana sponsored by Haryana Brick Kilns Owners Association. The project involved collection and analysis of clay samples from 160 clusters of brick kilns throughout the State, prototype preparation of clay-flyash bricks using various compositions of flyash, firing of green bricks and its testing besides full-scale field trials at 2 brick kilns.
  • Functioning as Local Resource Centre (LRC) for the States of Punjab & Haryana under UNDP-GEF Project “Energy Efficiency Improvements in Indian Brick Industry” since 2009.
  • Working on CPCB Project on “Revisions of Comprehensive Industry Document for Brick Kilns”
  • Organized International Conference “Mechanization in Brick Industry” (MBI-2011), with an objective to provide platform for interaction between technology providers and brick manufacturers for facilitating the transfer of technology for production of Resource Efficient Bricks (REBs).
  • Working on CPCB Project “Evaluation and Improvement in Design for Clamp Kilns for Brick Manufacturing” jointly with TERI.
  • Coal Saving : Industry has reported 10-15% savings in coal amounting to Rs.10 lacs to 15 lacs per kiln in one season on adoption of energy efficiency kiln design provided by the PSCST along with improved practices.
  • Brick Production: The production increase by 10% has been reported by the industry besides considerable improvement in quality of fired bricks.
  • Carbon Footprint Reduction: 370 Tonnes CO2 reduction per kiln per annum.
  • Improved working environment for the workers
  • Saving in resources : The facilitation role of PSCST has started bearing fruits in terms of established increased demand for REBs ultimately leading to direct savings of precious resources (Clay & fuel) by 20-30% and energy conservation due to better insulation properties of REBs.
  • Consultancy for energy efficient fixed chimney BTKs
  • On-site/Off-site training during construction of Brick Kilns
  • Training to supervisor and workers on ‘Better Feeding, Firing and Operating Practices”
  • Sensitization regarding energy efficient brick technology, mechanization in brick sector and knowledge sharing regarding production of REBs through interactive workshops, seminars, conferences
  • Facilitate in selection and implementation of semi-mechanization/mechanization in brick industry.
  • Identification and demonstration of technology for Mechanical Coal Stokers for BTKs and High Drafts Kilns.
  • Setting up of an State-of-the-Art Laboratory with infrastructure for testing of clays and fuels, prototype production and testing of various models of bricks.
  • Identification and demonstration of energy efficient brick technologies suitable to local conditions.
  • Preparation of technology modules for facilitating adoption of energy efficient semi-mechanized/mechanized brick making technologies.
Downloads ; Manual & Information Brochure, Article on Brick
For more details :
Contact :Mr.Pritpal Singh, Senior Engineer, Cell No. 098141-04784 Email :stcouncilpb@gmail.com